Focus question: How have digital platforms changed PR strategies and how do they interact with non-digital platforms?

Public Relations have made dramatic changes since the inclusion of digital platforms. This has allowed PR strategies to establish online campaigning through aspects such as social media.

Social media site Twitter has become an open forum for conservation which has allowed new PR strategies to take place. This has become a popular place for campaigning as a direct lobbying tool as seen in the reading Behind the Digital Campaign, ´New digital media offer opportunities to transform political campaigning and representative democracy.´ (Williamson, A. Miller, L. & Fallon, F). Political people, celebrities and CEO’s of major companies have employed twitter to coordinate mass advocacy campaigns. In order for PR to reach its public’s they have used the approach of tweeting, retweeting, hash tags and lists to create a community of interest to reach their target audience. In terms of politics, Twitter has become a major campaign method to gain popularity of the public. The use of political figures and also political commentary shows such as Q&A has now become popular hash tags. Twitter has allowed politics to campaign their issues on democracy to create an open forum of discussion and gain popularity to its publics. 


These digital platforms have allowed PR to engage with journalists in a different form. There is significant importance to keep a close and informed relationship with journalists. This relationship will enable to exposure to media which is a fundamental aspect of PR campaigning. The strategy in which to engage journalists is to use social media outlets such as Twitter and Facebook to keep them up to date on relevant information.  PR has changed its strategy in communicating with Journalism due to these digital platforms in which they are able to connect by using social media outlets such as Twitter and Facebook.  

Not only is social media the only form of digital platforms that change PR strategies, there is also the inclusion of website, blogs and YouTube videos. These are very important aspects apart of a PR strategy. Although social media can have major effects most campaigns are not solely based on just social media. This is due to ensuring an interaction is kept with non-digital platforms. These non-digital platforms allow target audiences to be linked and access information to the digital platforms. These strategies include brochures and flyers that inform publics of the campaign as well as linking them to the social media and online sites.



Focus question: Referring to Jurgensen & Ray (2012), how are digital technologies affecting (in positive and/or negative ways) users’ privacy?

Digital Technology has made an alarming effect of the nature of privacy. This is due to the expansion of privacy due to the expansion of social media. These effects have both seen negative and positive results to the nature of privacy especially online. Jurgensen and Ray refer to both the positive and negative aspects of users’ privacy.

Social media sites are the main source for the erosion of the once-valued privacy. The erosion has led to a new cultural movement of mass publicity. Jurgensen and Ray refer to the aspect of zero sum game. This refers to the idea in that something must lose in order to win. This is relevant in the relationship of publicity and privacy. In order to achieve to publicity there evidently must be the loss of privacy. This is evident issue in the users’ privacy in digital technology. The negative aspect of this relationship is that publicity and privacy are an act of disclosure. This is evident in the privacy policies of Twitter and Facebook. In terms of Facebook, your information is used in order for advertisements to appear on your news feed as suggested posts. This is also an evident issue in Twitter in which your information is able to be release publicly at any point.



The positive aspects to the users’ privacy online are users’ ability to select which information they wish to ‘front stage’ and which information they would rather be left in a ‘dramaturgical’ status. This is evident in the reading that privacy is not secrecy, it is selectively revealing information. This allows other users to understand the identity of other users’ by knowing their interests and common information. Not only is there an identity established, as mentioned in Licklider and Taylor, there is a common interest formed. Jurgensen and Ray’s argument shows that publicity and privacy are co-implicated.  This is evident in their celebrity metaphor in which a celebrity in order to minimize their privacy means it will add their publicity. However there is also the aspect of control to how the information is released in order to maximise their privacy thus showing that privacy is the selectively revelation of information rather than just secrecy.

Jurgensen and Ray’s criticism of privacy takes an alternative approach in looking at the more positive aspect of privacy, noting the dialectal relationship with publicity. However there are still evident negative aspects of digital technology affecting users’ privacy due to differing privacy policy and the theory of zero-sum.


–          Jurgensen, N. & Rey, P. (2012). The Fan Dance: How Privacy Thrives In An Age Of Hyper-Publicity. Institute of Networked Cultures, Amsterdam, 2013

–           Licklider, J.C.R & Taylor, R.W. (1968). The Computer as a Communication Device. Viewed 17th September 2013. Reprinted Science and Technology (1968)

How do the affordances of a networked media culture (hyperlinks, multimedia, sharing, etc) enhance online communication?

Online communication is enhanced through networked media culture such as hyperlinks, multimedia and sharing. The affordances of these networked media culture allow users to compose an online identity and to create a community of interest.

Hyperlinks have become a fundamental aspect of the internet. The quality of hyperlinks allows individuals to perform an action and enhance online communication. The basis of hyperlink is to link and access information. The link created allows individuals to continue related searches which thus create a community of interest. These links create a social and cultural structure which enables the construction of identity. The affordances of hyperlinks allow enhanced communication. Evidence of this is noted in Halavais interpretation of the hyperlink as an organising principle. Hyperlinks have been adopted in everyday use and will increasingly become more important in our everyday lives. As Halavais notes in the history of the hyperlink is that hyperlinks present the ability to teach and persuade. This is clearly evident in the development of communication online in which user is able to do this to educate other users on a topic.

Multimedia has allowed online communication to expand. Multimedia covers a broad spectrum from YouTube, Instagram, and Twitter to generic websites. The quality of multimedia improves online communication on a global scale because users can connect and communicate their interests to others. This creates a community of interest among users who view and access these videos. This community can range from interests in common geography, social interaction and other ties such as politics or the environment. The importance of the affordances of multimedia is that the quality improves the receptivity. The dynamics of pictures, music and video assists in the audience receiving the message. Users, corporations and advertisers are able to establish an identity and these create a community of interest by what the multimedia portrays.

Online sharing has increasingly become a dominant aspect of social networking sites. These sites including Facebook, YouTube and Twitter have enhanced online communication through creating a community of interest on what is shared. This sharing of information has created an identity for both individuals and businesses. Sharing is building a support network in terms of creating a community of interest. Online communication is emphasised due to the quality of what users share, especially on social networking services



Focus Question: Referring to Livingstone (2008), how do people us social networking services to construct their identities, and how do social connections form part of those identities?

Identities are constantly constructed on social networking services. People use these social networking services to construct their identities through what they publish or upload onto these sites. These services allow individuals to choose how they want to portray and establish their identity. This enables people to present their professional or social identity by what their profile displays. This allows social connections to form part of those identities because of the interaction of common interests in a society of social networking.

A particular case in which the social connections online are constructing identities is evident in youth. Livingstone refers to the presentation of self and this is seen in social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace. These sites enable communication on a broad spectrum of friends to complete strangers. Youth are major players in the construction of identities online due to these sites in which they establish their ‘profile’. This idea of a profile allows individuals to publish information about themselves such as age, gender, education and interests. These details allow other users on these social networking services to understand their interest and get a general scope of their personality. Their identity is portrayed through the extent to which their information is published.

Livingstone refers to transitions in identity development and this is evident in social networking services showing the progression of individuals in constructing their identities and making social connections with other user. Livingstone uses particular cases and researches individual’s social networking habits in acknowledging their transition in identity development. Livingstone’s findings suggest that as development of both social networking sites and individuals there is an evident shift in site usage. Initially seen in early teens the popular usage of social networking services is Bebo but as youth and these sites develop there is an evident change in sites as many move to Facebook. This shows how social connections form a part of our identities through what social networking sites are popular to our community of interests.

Identity, intimacy and sociability are the fundamental factor of the opportunities that social networking. It has presented a shift in identity development which is clearly evident in the case study of youth. Not only is social networking services present opportunities for users to create an identity but also there is also an evident issue of risks these sites present. The issues of security and privacy of these sites can cause users to misjudge other users as trusted ‘friends.’

Even as early as the 1968 Lickleder and Taylor emphasised that ‘a communication system should make a positive contribution to the discovery and arousal of interests,’ (Lickleder & Taylor (1968) p.26). This quotation refers to the concept of online communication creating not only a community of interest but also an identity of individual users.



  • Livingstone, S. (2008). Taking Risky Opportunities in Youthful Content Creation: Teenagers’ Use of Social Networking Sites for Intimacy, Privacy and Self-Expression. New Media & Society 10(3), 393-411
  • Licklider, J.C.R & Taylor, R.W. (1968). The Computer as a Communication Device. Viewed 17th September 2013. Reprinted Science and Technology (1968)